Mumbai ( also known as Bombay — the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. According to the United Nations, as of 2018, Mumbai is the second-most populous city in the country after Delhi and the seventh-most populous city in the world with a population of roughly 20 million. As per the Indian government population census of 2011, Mumbai was the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.5 million living under Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Mumbai is the centre of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the sixth most populous metropolitan area in the world with a population of over 23 million. Mumbai lies on the Konkan coast on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city. It has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, and the city’s distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings.
The seven islands that constitute Mumbai were originally home to communities of Marathi language speaking Koli people. For centuries, the seven islands of Bombay were under the control of successive indigenous rulers before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire, and subsequently to the East India Company in 1661, through the dowry of Catherine Braganza when she was married off to Charles II of England. During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by economic and educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India’s independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital.
Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands: Isle of Bombay, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli, and Old Woman’s Island (also known as Little Colaba). It is not exactly known when these islands were first inhabited. Pleistocene sediments found along the coastal areas around Kandivali in northern Mumbai suggest that the islands were inhabited since the South Asian Stone Age. Perhaps at the beginning of the Common Era, or possibly earlier, they came to be occupied by the Koli fishing community.
In the 3rd century BCE, the islands formed part of the Maurya Empire, during its expansion in the south, ruled by the Buddhist emperor Ashoka of Magadha. The Kanheri Caves in Borivali were excavated from basalt rock in the first century CE, and served as an important centre of Buddhism in Western India during ancient Times. The city then was known as Heptanesia (Ancient Greek: A Cluster of Seven Islands) to the Greek geographer Ptolemy in 150 CE. The Mahakali Caves in Andheri were cut out between the 1st century BCE and the 6th century CE.
Between the 2nd century BCE and 9th century CE, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous dynasties: Satavahanas, Western Satraps, Abhira, Vakataka, Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas, before being ruled by the Shilaharas from 810 to 1260. Some of the oldest edifices in the city built during this period are the Jogeshwari Caves (between 520 and 525), Elephanta Caves (between the sixth to seventh century), Walkeshwar Temple (10th century), and Banganga Tank (12th century).
Mumbai is on a narrow peninsula on the southwest of Salsette Island, which lies between the Arabian Sea to the west, Thane Creek to the east and Vasai Creek to the north. Mumbai’s suburban district occupies most of the island. Navi Mumbai is east of Thane Creek and Thane is north of Vasai Creek. Mumbai consists of two distinct regions: Mumbai City district and Mumbai Suburban district, which form two separate revenue districts of Maharashtra. The city district region is also commonly referred to as the Island City or South Mumbai. The total area of Mumbai is 603.4 km2 (233 sq mi). Of this, the island city spans 67.79 km2 (26 sq mi), while the suburban district spans 370 km2 (143 sq mi), together accounting for 437.71 km2 (169 sq mi) under the administration of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). The remaining areas belong to various Defence establishments, the Mumbai Port Trust, the Atomic Energy Commission and the Borivali National Park, which are out of the jurisdiction of the MCGM. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region which includes portions of Thane, Palghar and Raigad districts in addition to Greater Mumbai, covers an area of 4,355 km2 (1681.5 sq mi). Mumbai lies at the mouth of the Ulhas River on the western coast of India, in the coastal region known as the Konkan. It sits on Salsette Island (Sashti Island), which it partially shares with the Thane district. Mumbai is bounded by the Arabian Sea to the west. Many parts of the city lie just above sea level, with elevations ranging from 10 m (33 ft) to 15 m (49 ft); the city has an average elevation of 14 m (46 ft). Northern Mumbai (Salsette) is hilly, and the highest point in the city is 450 m (1,476 ft) at Salsette in the Powai–Kanheri ranges. The Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Borivali National Park) is located partly in the Mumbai suburban district, and partly in the Thane district, and it extends over an area of 103.09 km2 (39.80 sq mi).
Mumbai consists of two revenue districts.
Mumbai skyline from Bandra Reclamation
Mumbai is India’s largest city (by population) and is the financial and commercial capital of the country as it generates 6.16% of the total GDP. It serves as an economic hub of India, contributing 10% of factory employment, 25% of industrial output, 33% of income tax collections, 60% of customs duty collections, 20% of central excise tax collections, 40% of India’s foreign trade and ₹40 billion (US$560 million) in corporate taxes. Along with the rest of India, Mumbai has witnessed an economic boom since the liberalisation of 1991, the finance boom in the mid-nineties and the IT, export, services and outsourcing boom in the 2000s. Although Mumbai had prominently figured as the hub of economic activity of India in the 1990s, the Mumbai Metropolitan Region is presently witnessing a reduction in its contribution to India’s GDP.
Recent estimates of the economy of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region is estimated to be $368 billion (PPP metro GDP) ranking it either the most or second-most productive metro area of India. Many of India’s numerous conglomerates (including Larsen & Toubro, State Bank of India (SBI), Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), Tata Group, Godrej and Reliance), and five of the Fortune Global 500 companies are based in Mumbai. This is facilitated by the presence of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), the National Stock Exchange of India (NSE), and financial sector regulators such as the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
Until the 1970s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since then diversified to include finance, engineering, diamond-polishing, healthcare and information technology. The key sectors contributing to the city’s economy are: finance, gems & jewellery, leather processing, IT and ITES, textiles, and entertainment. Nariman Point and Bandra Kurla Complex (BKC) are Mumbai’s major financial centres. Despite competition from Bangalore, Hyderabad and Pune, Mumbai has carved a niche for itself in the information technology industry. The Santacruz Electronic Export Processing Zone (SEEPZ) and the International Infotech Park (Navi Mumbai) offer excellent facilities to IT companies.
MUMBAI CITY DISTRICT
The city of Mumbai came in light in the year 150 CE through the geographical work of renowned geographer, Ptolemy. The city, consisting of several islands, was then ruled by native Agris and Kolis. These natives ruled the islands up to 1345. Thereafter, Mumbai’s rulers changed through history until Islamic rulers conquered what is now Maharashtra and conquered some of the islands in 1534. Subsequently, sultan of Gujarat took over all the islands, which were then conquered by the Portuguese.Mumbai City District is a district of Maharashtra in Konkan Division. As a city district, it has no headquarters or subdivisions. It, along with the Mumbai Suburban District, makes up the metropolis of Mumbai. The city area is called the “island city” or South Mumbai or Old Mumbai. It extends from Colaba in the south to Mahim and Sion in the north. The city has an area of 157 km2 (61 sq mi) and a population of 3,085,411.
MUMBAI suburban DISTRICT
Mumbai Suburban District (Marathi: Mumbai Upanagar Jilhā; previously Bombay Suburban district) is a second most populous district of Maharashtra in Konkan Division. Its headquarters is in Bandra. It consists of three administrative subdivisions : Kurla, Andheri, and Borivali. The district along with Mumbai City district and other suburban localities make up Greater Mumbai on Salsette Island. The district occupies an area of 446 km2.
This is the second smallest district of Maharashtra, and it administratively comes under Konkan Division.
The jurisdiction of Mumbai Suburban District is from Bandra to Dahisar, from Kurla to Mulund and from Kurla up to Trombay Creek.
Mumbai Suburban District is one of the largest districts in the country by population. The current population is 9,356,962, according to the 2011 census, making it the fifth most populous district in India (out of 672). The Mithi River is the main river in the district.
As the city that never sleeps and famous for its high-end malls and lucrative streets. Mumbai City also known as Bombay, offers unique experiences, from the beautiful promenades to the cosmopolitan culture.
Known as the city of dreams (Mayanagri), it is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. Mumbai is also the second most populous city in India with a population of 19.98million. Moreover, it lies on the Konkan coast, which is on the west coast of India, with its very own natural harbour.
Back in 2008 Mumbai was named an alpha world’s city and it’s the wealthiest city with the largest number of millionaires and billionaires in all of the cities in India. Generally, the city serves as headquarters to some of the financial institutions like the National Stock Exchange, Reserve Bank of India and the Mint among many other
According to the 2011 census Mumbai City district has a population of 3,085,411, roughly equal to the nation of Mongolia or the US state of Iowa. This gives it a ranking of 115th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 19,652 inhabitants per square kilometre (50,900/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was -7.57%. Mumbai City has a sex ratio of 832 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 89.21%. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 7.13% and 0.81% of the population respectively.
|Religions in Mumbai City district (2011)|
|Other or not stated||1.74%|
Public transport systems in Mumbai include the Mumbai Suburban Railway, Monorail, Metro, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) buses, black-and-yellow meter taxis, auto rickshaws and ferries. Suburban railway and BEST bus services together accounted for about 88% of the passenger traffic in 2008.
The Mumbai Suburban Railway, popularly referred to as Locals forms the backbone of the city’s transport system. It is operated by the Central Railway and Western Railway zones of the Indian Railways. Mumbai’s suburban rail systems carried a total of 6.3 million passengers every day in 2007.
Mumbai’s bus services carried over 5.5 million passengers per day in 2008, which dropped to 2.8 million in 2015. Public buses run by BEST cover almost all parts of the metropolis, as well as parts of Navi Mumbai, Mira-Bhayandar and Thane. The BEST operates a total of 4,608 buses with CCTV cameras installed, ferrying 4.5 million passengers daily over 390 routes.
Water transport in Mumbai consists of ferries, hovercraft and catamarans. Services are provided by both government agencies as well as private partners. Hovercraft services plied briefly in the late 1990s between the Gateway of India and CBD Belapur in Navi Mumbai. They were subsequently scrapped due to lack of adequate infrastructure.
The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport (formerly Sahar International Airport) is the main aviation hub in the city and the second busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic. It handled 36.6 million passengers and 694,300 tonnes of cargo during FY 2014–2015. An upgrade plan was initiated in 2006, targeted at increasing the capacity of the airport to handle up to 40 million passengers annually and the new terminal T2 was opened in February 2014.
Mumbai Port Trust (also known as the Bombay Port Trust) is a port which lies midway on the West coast of India, on the natural deep-water harbour of Mumbai (Bombay) in Maharashtra.The harbour spread over 400 square kilometres (150 sq mi) is protected by the mainland of Konkan to its east and north and by the island city of Mumbai to its west. The harbour opens to the south to the Arabian Sea.
The port is administered by the Mumbai Port Trust (MbPT, formerly the Bombay Port Trust (BPT)), an autonomous corporation wholly owned by the Government of India. The port is primarily used for bulk cargo, while most container traffic is directed to Nhava Sheva port across the harbour.
Crawford Market (officially Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Mandai) is one of South Mumbai’s most famous markets. The building was completed in 1869, and donated to the city by Cowasji Jehangir. Originally named after Arthur Crawford, the first Municipal Commissioner of the city, the market was later renamed to honour Maharashtrian social reformer Mahatma Jotirao Phule. The market is situated opposite the Mumbai Police headquarters, just north of Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus railway station and west of the J.J. flyover at a busy intersection. It was the main wholesale market for fruits in Mumbai until March 1996, when the wholesale traders were relocated to Navi Mumbai.
In 1882, the building was the first in India to be lit up by electricity.
SHOPPING MALL (R CITY MALL)
R City Mall is a shopping mall located in Ghatkopar West, Mumbai. The mall spreads across 1.2 million square feet with the capacity to house over 350 stores. The mall has over 194 shopping stores, over 66 food outlets, 10 entertainment areas, 3 ATM facilities, 13 service areas, and a Movie Theatre (INOX Leisure Limited). The mall was opened in two phases, the total size of the first phase of the development is 7.5 lakh square feet. It is a project developed by The Runwal Group.
This is a list of movie theatres in the city of Mumbai, India. Mumbai has long been associated with films, with the first film being displayed here in 1896 by the Lumière Brothers. It thereafter became the centre of India’s Hindi and Marathi language film industries, with the former often dubbed as Bollywood. The first cinema opened in 1913. Mumbai has many cinemas catering to a large and polyglot population. Cinemas often serve as major landmarks in the city and define the neighbourhood. Most of the cinemas in the city are one-screen halls, but in recent times these have been giving way to large multiplexes.
Recently some cinemas, (often interchangeably called “theatres”) have been forced to shut shop due to the high entertainment tax (which stands at 55%), that results in huge losses. Since 2000, 50 cinemas have shut down in the city.
Mumbai is known for its entertainment industry so there are a lot of cinemas. Such One Example is Maratha Mandir which is known for playing Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge for almost 20 years being a single screen cinema. There are also 3 IMAX venues, namely BIG Cinemas, PVR Cinemas, and Cinépolis IMAX in Thane.
Sanjay Gandhi National Park is a 87 km2 (34 sq mi) protected area in Mumbai, Maharashtra State in India. It was established in 1996 with headquarters at Borivali.
The rich flora and fauna of Sanjay Gandhi National Park attracts more than 2 million visitors every year. Tourists also enjoy visiting the 2400-year-old Kanheri caves sculpted out of the rocky cliffs which lies within the park.
Bombay Hospital a.k.a. BHMRC (Bombay Hospital And Medical Research Centre – Mumbai)  is a private hospital in Mumbai, India. It was founded in 1950 by R. D. Birla. It has 830 beds, 110 of which are in the critical care and recovery area. It has 22 operating theatres, 3,200 full-time employees, 240 eminent consultants and 200 resident doctors. In the R D Birla International Cardiac Centre associated with Bombay Hospital, there are 4 dedicated operation theatres, 2 cath labs where 1,800 surgeries and 4,000 angiographies/angioplasties are conducted each year. The department of neurosurgery and neurology also has 4 dedicated operation theatres.